The AMF/KMF are industrially produced artificial mineral fibres. There are four groups: glass wool (white or yellow long fibres), rock wool (darker, green-yellow fibres), slag wool (dark, brownish fibres; not very common) and ceramic fibres (white; high-temperature wool).
The AMFs/KMFs were and are primarily used for heat and sound insulation (e.g. in roofs, ceilings and walls, in ventilation and heating systems), partly also as a substitute for products containing asbestos. AMF/KMF produced before 1996 are called “old mineral wool“. These can release respirable fibres with low biodegradability and are therefore classified as carcinogenic. After a transitional phase, only biodegradable mineral fibres with the RAL quality mark have been allowed to be placed on the market since 2000.
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